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Benares House Gallery
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Bread Churn
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Title: Bread Churn
Identifier: 979.6.139
Donor: Geoffrey Sayers
Item Date: 1909
Creation Date: 2011
Location: Benares Historic House

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Description: A bread maker, with handles for the pail, a locking lid, mixing 'blade' and a wood knob to churn. The instructions inscribed on lid read: "PUT IN ALL LIQUIDS FIRST THEN FLOUR. TURN 3 MINUTES. RAISE IN PAIL. AFTER RAISING, TURN UNTIL DOUGH FORMS A BALL. TAKE OFF CROSS PIECE. LIFT OUT DOUGH WITH KNEADER". The cross piece locks in place over the lid. The position where the cross piece fits on the lid is inscribed "Cover with this when raising". The cross piece is inscribed with "No. 4 Universal Bread Maker". This is followed by patent numbers and dates, some of which are illegible. What can be read is: "Patented ?O. 11. 1900; (J?)une 2, 1900; July 14, 1903; Aug. 23, 1903; Nov. 3, 190(3?)" . These are followed by "Made by Landers, Frary & Clark, New Britain, Conn. U.S.A." The bread maker has two round metal feet on the bottom of the pail.

In 1829 George Landers started working for Josiah Dewey, who owned a small foundry which made cupboard latches and other hardware. After Dewey in died in 1853 Landers took control of the company which became Landers & Smith Manufacturing Company. In 1862 the company acquired Frary, Clark and Company. The business was then known as Landers, Frary & Clark. The company made a variety of metal household goods, including scales, meat choppers, sausage stuffers, door handles, screw eyes, strap hooks, faucets, meat hooks, harness hooks, hat hooks and toys. In the 1890ís they adopted the trade name "Universal" for their products. The company prospered as they released a series of revolutionary household products. One of these products was the "Universal Bread Maker". They also released a food chopper and coffee percolator in 1897 and 1905 respectively. By 1912 they had begun producing electrical appliances including ranges. In 1965 the "Universal" trademark was purchased by General Electricís Housewares Division. :
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