|Description: A black metal (tinned iron) ‘hog-scraper’ style candle holder. There is a concave, round metal base from which rises a narrow, vertical, hollow tube. The tube has a smaller circle at the bottom and an open round lip at the top. There is a small oval handle on one side that slides up and down along a channel cut into the side of the tube. The tube is screwed to the base of the candle holder. The candle would sit inside the tube and the handle allowed it to be raised as it burned for minimal waste. The handle is impressed with an illegible mark.
History: Early Canadian homes where illuminated by candle light or whale-oil lamps. Domestic candles were made of either tallow, concentrated fat of sheep or cattle, or beeswax. There are two methods for making candles, moulding or dipping. To make moulded candles a metal tubular mould was strung with wick cord and then filled with the liquid tallow or wax and was allowed to solidify. Dipping was less straight forward but was still relatively simple although more time consuming. A number of wicks would be suspended from a long stick and dipped into melted wax or tallow. Between each dipping, the candles would be cooled to allow the material to harden. These candles were often hung on the back of chairs to solidify. Various candle-dipping machines were invented to help speed up the process. The word candle comes from the Latin word 'candere' meaning to shine. The Romans are credited with introducing the wick candle, which replaced rush lights. Rush lights were first developed by the ancient Egyptians and were made by soaking the core of reeds with tallow. Rush lights were commonly used in Great Britain and continued to be used in rural areas into the early 1800’s. Candle holders came in a variety of shapes and sizes. Wealthy households might have silver and brass holders while wood, metal, pottery and pewter were more common in poorer households. This example is called a Hog-Scraper as it resembles a tool used to scrap the hides of slaughtered pigs.